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What is Brainwave Rhythms?#

The brainwaves are divided into five kinds of rhythms based on their frequencies. They are α wave, β wave, θ wave, δ wave, and γ wave. When your brain is in different states, the percentage changes. Through frequency domain analysis of real-time brainwaves, we'll know the power ratio of each brainwave. The change in their percentage reflects the change of brain states.

The power ratio of each brainwave frequency

NameFrequencyPower RatioBrain stateMeditation state
Gamma wave (γ)30-45HzAbout 2%Aware and focusedExperienced meditators do meditation.
Beta wave (β)14-30Hz35~55%Focused, active and intenseWhen you are highly focused during meditation.
Alpha wave (α)8-14Hz15~35%Aware and relaxed with eyes closedIt increases when you close eye and feel relaxed.
Theta wave (θ)4-7Hz25~45%Deeply relaxed, or in light sleepExperienced meditators may have a strong theta wave but keep awake.
Delta wave (δ)1-3HzAbout 5%Deep sleepChange very little during meditation.

There are slight discrepancies in the frequency bands of the brainwave rhythm reported on different papers. The frequency band adopted in our algorithm is based on below.1

Besides, the ratio varies from person to person, related to gender and age, etc.234

Following is a typical case from a young man at the age of 28 when he was awake with his eyes open: β waves are dominant (30%-40%), θ waves the second (25-35%), α waves the third (20%-30%), γ waves the fourth (around 10%) and δ waves the last (below 10%).


The ratio may be different from the result made through the clinic or other devices as the data profoundly depends on the device's sensitivity to the frequency and the sensor placement.

  1. Sanei, Saeid & Chambers, Jonathon. (2007). EEG signal processing. 10.1002/9780470511923.
  2. Doppelmayr, Michael. (2004). Changes in EEG-bandpower and coherence in the theta, alpha, and gamma band while solving Raven's Matrices. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 54. 38-38.
  3. Otero GA, Pliego-Rivero FB, Fernández T, Ricardo J (2003) EEG development in children with sociocultural disadvantages: a follow-up study. Clin Neurophysiol 114:1918–1925.
  4. Latta F, Leproult R, Tasali E, Hofmann E, Van Cauter E (2005) Sex differences in delta and alpha EEG activities in healthy older adults. Sleep 28:1525–1534.